Inclusione e apprendimento cooperativo: l’esperienza di Claudio Berretta

claudio_berrettaClaudio Berretta, insegnante di sostegno di scuola secondaria di primo grado, formatore, docente a contratto e tutor coordinatore del tirocinio all’Università degli Studi di Torino, si occupa da anni della tematica dell’inclusione e le sue molteplici esperienze lo hanno portato a mettere in primo piano le modalità di apprendimento cooperativo.
Egli stesso ci spiega perché l’apprendimento cooperativo è uno strumento fondamentale anche nell’attività di formazione e aggiornamento dei docenti.

Da quando iniziai a svolgere il ruolo di consulente e formatore – mantenendo quello di insegnante specializzato per il sostegno nella scuola media – ebbi sempre chiara l’idea che fosse necessaria una formazione tra pari che, pur partendo da solide basi teoriche, facesse un costante riferimento alla pratica quotidiana, vissuta anche in classi “difficili”, e fosse caratterizzata da esperienze pratiche di costruzione attiva e cooperativa della conoscenza, piuttosto che esclusivamente da dissertazioni teoriche che mantengono i partecipanti nella condizione di passivi ascoltatori.

Berretta si è occupato molto, anche in termini di studio e ricerca, dei BES, tema a cui ha dedicato un importante volume.

L’applicazione della normativa sui BES può costituire un’occasione per lavorare insieme nei gruppi di lavoro per l’inclusione (GLI), rendendo i docenti protagonisti della costruzione di percorsi di apprendimento in grado di rispondere ai bisogni educativi “normalmente speciali” di tutti gli allievi, superando la condizione di isolamento che spesso rende oltremodo difficile il lavoro dell’insegnante.
Lo scopo del mio libro è quello di dare alcune indicazioni pratiche per la progettazione e la realizzazione di attività inclusive a livello di classe (PDP) e di istituto (PAI), anche proponendo progetti di lezione già sperimentati per rispondere a situazioni di difficoltà.
La parte operativa è preceduta da riflessioni e riferimenti per fornire un quadro teorico almeno parzialmente chiarificatore del motivo delle attività proposte.

Ma Claudio Berretta ha scritto anche un libro dal titolo curioso (Professore, lei è felice?). Di che si tratta?

Si tratta di racconti e riflessioni relative ad esperienze di scuola inclusiva, in grado di integrare allievi con difficoltà e allievi eccellenti, con risultati migliori per tutti.
Situazioni nelle quali gli studenti sono impegnati nella costruzione attiva del proprio sapere e nello sviluppo di competenze significative, in una dimensione di tipo cooperativo che vede il dominio, la competizione esasperata e la prevaricazione, lasciare spazio allo sviluppo di legami di solidarietà e alla capacità di sviluppare relazioni costruttive, basate sull’ascolto e il rispetto reciproco.

Potremmo sintetizzare in una frase in cosa consiste il mestiere dell’insegnante?

Possiamo richiamarci a Paulo Freire che, nel suo libro “Pedagogia dell’autonomia”, scrive: “Insegnare non è trasferire conoscenza, ma creare le possibilità per la sua produzione o la sua costruzione” Per quanto riguarda poi l’attività come formatore ho fatto mie le successive parole di Paulo Freire: “come insegnante in un corso di formazione per docenti non posso esaurire la mia pratica discorrendo sulla teoria della non trasferibilità della conoscenza, altrimenti mi ingarbuglio nella rete delle contraddizioni in cui la mia testimonianza, non essendo autentica, perde efficacia”.

Claudio Berretta svolge una intensa attività di studio, ricerca e formazione, ampiamente illustrata e documentata nel suo sito

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